During the s, Piaget began observing children and developing his theory of development, which proposed that children pass through a series of distinct stages of cognitive development. His theory acknowledged that children could pass through the stages at different rates but maintained that all children went through the stages in the same order. This theory holds that children learn by actively constructing knowledge, rather than by passively receiving it. As they take in new experiences, children build and expand upon their mental constructs, or the patterns in which they organize knowledge.
Constructivists call these constructs schemas. According to Piaget Rumelhart, , two processes affect these schemas: Adaptation occurs when a person adjusts his or her mental constructs or "schemes" or creates new ones in order to understand new information.
Within this concept, two sub-processes, assimilation and accommodation, work together. When a child assimilates, he or she incorporates new information into an existing mental scheme. When a child accommodates, he or she creates a new mental scheme or changes an existing one to understand new information. Conservation means to understand that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes. According to Piaget, children in the concrete stage are able to easily solve the problems faced in the conservation task due to their cognitive development.
The conservation of number involves taking two rows with the same number of things, for example coins, fruits, and buttons that are equally spaced. Initially, the 5 year olds knew that the two rows were had the same number, but if one row was shortened, children failed to notice that the two rows were the same. On the task for conservation of solid quantity, he showed young children two pencils, two pens, or two sticks of the same length laying down next to one another.
Piaget, then moved one of the sticks to show the children that by moving one of the sticks, it would make it longer than the other and as he had predicted, the children were unable to realize that the two sticks were of the same length.
In the task of conservation of liquid, he described he showed young children the same amount of water in two identical glasses and allowed the children to realize that both of the glasses were of the same size and the water in them were of equal proportion. Piaget then took one of the glasses and poured the water into a longer, thinner glass and concluded that the children were unable to comprehend that the new glass contained the same amount as the original two glasses of water.
Twenty other children, who were at the age of 8, were able to apply "an additive rule" to solve the problems, while the nonconserving children showed patterns of concentrating on only one of the two dimensions.
In another study, Fiati studied children in the Volta regiorn of West Africa and attempted to find a correlation between children learning in different cultures and conservation. Since children in the Volta region were growing up in isolated, agricultural villages their experiences with time, money, and mathematical computation were different from children living in settings with schools.
Under these conditions, Fiati discovered that the children living in the non-school setting lacked comparable abilities to the children that went to school. He also stated that these unidimensional structures are universal and that children tested on central conceptual structures progressed through the same stages and at the same rate, but on the test of specific understanding, there was "cross-national differences" and from this Fiati concluded that if a culture values a particular task and invests time and effort in to teaching them, it is likely that children will pass the tasks.
The idea that children at the age of 5 are not capable of passing the tasks of conservations, while 8 year olds are able to succeed will be tested in the following experiment. My subject is a four year old girl named Sarah, who according to Piaget would be in the pre-operational stage and would not succeed at the task that will be presented to her and ten year old Kiran, who would succeed.
Before presenting Sarah and Kiran with the tasks, I had to prepare the experiment according to the way Piaget had performed it. For each task, the subjects were separated and had no knowledge of what was going to be presented to them before performing the task.
She realized that each row had eight candies and responded "eight", when I asked her to confirm how many candies were to each row. I, then took the candies in one of the row and placed them further apart from each other and asked Sarah to tell me if both rows of candies were the same. According to Piaget, Sarah would respond that the row with the candies further apart had more and according to her response, that is exactly what she did.
I, then had Sarah leave the area of the experiment and had Kiran follow the same procedures as Sarah had done. The psychological realm, a student, canada. Thesis papers, buy essay, do assignment helper malaysia grade my essay on. Our ideas by a swiss social scientist.
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May 20, · We Can Write Custom Research Papers on Jean Piaget for You! In Piaget's conservation task, 5 year olds were asked to follow procedures for the conservation of number, solid quantity, and liquid quantity.
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